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Requirements regarding prior subjects and grades

What does ECTS mean?

ECTS stands for "European Credit Transfer System" and represents a unified measure of the workload of study efforts. It is a points-based system, which aims to make the education at different European universities comparable.

I have acquired my Bachelor's degree abroad. How can I convert my grade into the German grading system?

A foreign Bachelor's grade can be translated to the German grading system by applying the following formula:

N = 1 + 3 x ((Pmax – P) / (Pmax – Pmin))

N = translated average German grade in the German
P = final grade/points of the applicant’s Bachelor's degree
Pmax = best possible grade/points achievebale in the applicant’s Bachelor program
Pmin = worst possible grade/points achievable in the applicant’s Bachelor program

Is there a possibility to bypass the required final grade of the Bachelor's degree of 2.3 or better?

No, there is no possibility to avoid this criterion. The Bachelor's certificate (or transcript of records) needs to demonstrate a grade of 2.39 or better according to the German grading system. Please notice that grades are cut rather than rounded after the first decimal place.

How do you treat the second decimal place of the final Bachelor's grade if I have a grade between 2.31 and 2.39?

The so-called "Abschneideverfahren" (cut off treatment) applies, which states that average grades are not rounded but cut after the first decimal place. E.g. the grades 2.31 to 2.39 will all be treated as 2.3.

How can I convert course credits, which do not comply with the ECTS system?

One ECTS credit point equals 30 working hours. If the Bachelor's degree was awarded based on a different credit system, please provide us with the general conversion formula of the former university at the time of application.

What can I do if credit points in my minor are missing?

If an applicant has not earned the required amount of ECTS credits in the minor, there are opportunities to earn additional ECTS credits in online courses and university institutes. Please contact for further information.

Is it possible to compensate missing ECTS credit points in the minor with former work experience in a relevant field?

No, work experience cannot replace any academic efforts. Furthermore, please keep in mind that practical work experience will not be taken into account for the application process.

How do you define "informatics"? Do general IT or computer courses (e.g. MS Office) count for the required informatics minor?

Informatics courses must exercise algorithmic thinking and/or basic programming languages, such as Java or Python. Basic computer courses for business purposes (e.g. Excel modeling) cannot be recognized as informatics credits. Please contact us via e-mail in case you have doubts about your informatics subjects.

I am a (former) ‘business administration’ (BWL) bachelor’s student at the LMU. Which modules of this program are acknowledged as "informatics"?

Please read the section on ‘exceptions’ in the application requirements for educational residents for this information.